What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Yamaha T - 70

 Sound Over Specifications 
Yamaha's unique design philosophy - an approach which has produced a large repertoire of the world's finest audio components - is directly behind the development of Yamaha tuners as well. 
The Yamaha philosophy: to provide the most natural sound reproduction quality above all else. While this may seem an obvious approach, most manufactures actually place considerable emphasis on improving specifications - whether the measured improvement results in a corresponding improvement in sound quality or not. IHF standards, for example, require tuner sensitivity specifications to be measured at 100% FM modulation.  The signal arriving at a tuner's antenna under actual broadcast conditions, however, is only 20% or 30% modulated - a difference that means dramatic changes in sound quality. Rather than aiming for the best specs with a 100% FM modulated signal. Yamaha tuners are designed for the best sound under actual listening conditions. The result is, naturally, that Yamaha tuners offer strikingly superior sound performance. 
One of the most exemplary tuners resulting from Yamaha's unique design philosophy is T-70. This remarkable tuner offers a 10-station random-access preset tuning system which allows presetting of up to 10 Am and FM stations in any combination, exceptionally accurate manual pushbutton tunung, and an improved auto-search function that does away with the arbitrariness of ordinary synthesizer auto-search functions. But all this tuning convenience is made really worthwhile by the t-70's sound. The T-70 incorporates a whole spectrum of new Yamaha technology that achieves significantly improved music reproduction accuracy. The T-70's superior sound, convenience and overall performance clearly reflect Yamaha's firm policy of providing nothing but the purest, most natural sound reproduction.

 Computer Servo Locked Synthesizer Tuning System 
One of the biggest problems with conventional synthesizer tuners is that their crystal oscillator and frequency dividers are producing RF (Radio Frequency) signals within the tuner itself. These frequencies can leak into other parts of the tuner causing distortion, interference and a loss of signal-to-noise ratio. The T-70 offers a brilliant solution to this problem. The reception  frequency is initially locked to a reference frequency generated by a super-accurate "micro-fork" oscillator. The micro-fork is a unique oscillator element, made with a special Yamaha alloy, that offers even greater temperature stability than quartz. Once the desired station is detected, however, the frequency divider and associated PLL  circuitry are turned off, and the T-70's Servo Locked system takes over to lock the tuner to the frequency of the received station. This system generates absolutely no interference - causing internal noise, and yet ensures reliable, drift-free operation. 

RF Servo Gain Control 
The T-70 is exceptionally resistant to intermodulation distortion caused by strong interfering stations thanks to a a unique Yamaha RF Servo Gain Control system. When an interfering station is detected, the RF Servo Gain Control turns on automatically to reduce RF gain by a carefully controlled amount, effectively avoiding this kind of interference. When no interfering signal is present, the T-70 automatically sets the normal RF gain for optimum sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and sound quality. 

Ultra-Linear Direct FM Detector 
This high-performance circuit offers a simpler, cleaner signal path as well as improved linearity compared to even the latest pulse-count detector systems. The outstanding low-noise, low-distortion performance provided by this unique Yamaha circuit ensures that the music signal reaches the multiplex stereo decoder stage with no distortion added from the time it reached the tuner's antenna. 

Real-Time Direct CMOS DC NFB PLL Multiplex Demodulator 
Conventional stereo demultiplexing systems involve turning semiconductor analog switches on and off at a 38 kHz rate. Switvhing distortion can be a problem, however, since the switches have a finite switching time and are located in the signal path. 
The T-70 completely overcomes this problem by using extremely high speed CMOS switches located in the negative feedback loop of a high slew rate DC amplifier. The resulting demodulator offers excellent stereo separation, low harmonic and intermodulation distortion, and exceptional transient response for the most natural FM stereo reproduction. 

 AM/FM 10-Station Random Access Preset Tuning 
Up to 10 AM and FM stations can be programmed into the T-70 memory for instant one-touch tuning. Unlike many preset tuning systems which may have 5 preset memories specifically for AM and 5 more for FM, the T-70 random-access system lets you preset any combination of AM and FM stations in any order up to a total of 10.  You can even program all FM or all AM stations if you like. 
This is possible because the T-70 memory not only stores the station's frequency, but the band (AM or FM) as well. If you program 10 stations with your favorite ones first, you'll be able to quickly call them out in order without having to switch back and forth between the AM and FM bands. No other tuner, synthesizer or otherwise, has ever been produced that is easier to use and listen to than the Yamaha T-70. 

Initial Station Set 
In addition to the 10-station random access preset memory system, an initial station set function is provided which lets you pre-program any station to be tuned in every time power to the tuner is switched on.  Preset your favorite station using this function, then whenever you turn the T-70 on you're precisely tuned in - the perfect feature for timer recording from FM broadcasts.  
Additionally, all the T-70's memory is nonvolatile. This means that it will not be cleared or erased even if power to the tuner is completely cut off. And there's no time limit to unpowered memory storage as there is with backup battery, and capacitor supplies. 

Other Features 
Auto DX 
Anti-Interference PLL system 
Tracking Type Pure Pilot Canceller 
Pushbutton auto-search tuning 
Manual single-step tuning 
High-Q low-impedance AM loop antenna 
Selectable AM selectivity 
Built-in recording calibration oscillator 
Signal Quality indicator 

Sony TC-K61

The Sony TC-K61 is an outstanding expression of Sony’s ability to deliver the latest and best in tape. The K61 provides the superlative speed constancy of Sony’s two-motor drive system, controlled by a logic microprocessor IC. The microprocessor, which receivers commands via feather-touch pushbuttons, executes them via transport solenoids. The result is smoother operation, gresater flexibility, and the capabilities for timer operation and remote control. Moreover, the K61 incorporates Sony’s exceptional Sendust and Ferrite record/play head, four-gap erase head, LED Peak Program Meters, and a host of electronic refinements. Yet for all its sophistication, the TC-K61 remains easy to operate - and reasonable in price.

Low-Distortion Electronics
Sony’s attention to detail is evident in the electronic design of the TC-K61. For example, the critical playback head amplifier uses a unique, patented, direct-coupled design, which improves phases linearity and lowers distortion. The power supply employs an FET-buffer circuit for constant-current drive, even when the household voltage itself varies. And the K61 provides a switch for low and normal Type Ibias, in addition to a four-position tape selector switch. Even the selection of electronic parts reflects Sony’s commitment to the best possible sound. The power supply incorporates fast-recovery diodes that minimize noise. The equalization amplifier uses expensive metal film resistors and polypropylene capacitors. Finally, the headphone/line output control uses a stepped attenuator, with discrete, potted resistors for the lowest noise possible.

 Sony Dolby IC
A high-quality Dolby noise reduction circuit typically requires about 100 separate parts, including transistors, resistors, and capacitors. Sony has replaced all of these parts with the newly developed Sony Dolby IC, the CX-174. Made with Sony’s unique “Process V” wafering technique, the Dolby IC exhibits exceptionally pure chemical composition. This helps the CX-174 realize lower distortion, wider dynamic range, and better tracking linearity.
In addition, conventional Dolby Circuits use a record/playback slide switch, which can introduce noise. In contrast, the CX-174 works in conjunction with a relay switch that is quieter and more reliable than the conventional slide switch. To further maintain this recording accuracy, the TC-K61 incorporates a switchable multiplex filter. When you record FM stereo broadcasts, the filter can be switched on to prevent the standard 19 kHz FM pilot signal from interfering with the Dolby system. At all other times, the filter can be defeated for optimum high-frequency response

Microprocessor-Controlled Transport
The sophisticated two-motor transport is, in turn, controlled by a microprocessor IC logic system. Feather touch pushbuttons provide convenient, foolproof mode selection. You can go quiclky from one mode to another, without going through Stop. The logic circuit checks each command for proper sequencing, and protects the tape and mechanism from undue stress. The logic circuit also facilitates ‘Punch-in” recording of new material onto a previously recorded track. End-of-side sensing for All-mode Auto-Stop can be accomplished with Sony’s non contact Luminous Sensor.

Two-Motor System
Because tape speed irregularity can be heard as wavering sound, unvarying tape drive is essential to high-fidelity cassette recording. For this reason, the Sony TC-K61 uses two discrete DC motors to move the tape across the heads. This division of labor eliminates any irregularities caused by variations in tape supply tension, and reduces the number of mechanical linkages needed in the transport mechanism. The spooling motor drives the reel hubs and provides fast winding. This high-torque motor works in conjunction with the magnetic clutch assembly to provide not only quick fast-forward and rewind, but also extremely gentle tape handling.
The second motor, which drives the capstan, incorporates Sony’s famous brushless and slotless (BSL) design for uncommonly even delivery of torque increases and decreases as a result of spaces - “slot” - between the electromagnets. This wavering-force effect is called “cogging”. Sony has eliminated cogging with the remarkable BSL motor. There are no brushes, no slots, and the magnetic force is smooth and constant. As an additional benefit, the absence of motor brushes makes the BSL motor unusually quiet and trouble-free.
As with the TC-K44, the K61 uses a frequency-generator (FG)servo system. In the K61, a tiny FG has been incorporated into the BSL motor. As the motor turns, the generator produces an AC signal whose frequency is proportional to the motor’s speed. In this way, the FG reports any speed irregularities to the servo control electronics, which in turn, governs the motor speed. Thus, even slight speed variations are corrected - before they can affect the sound.
This advanced drive system is completed by an oversize dynamically-balanced, anti-resonant flyhweel. The die-cast, zinc flywheel incorporates a nonmetallic compound to dampen resonance, and thus helps to minimize modulation noise caused by the transport mechanism. As a result of these precautions, the K61 can maintain smooth tape travel under a wide variety of temperature and mechanical load conditions. The audible pfoof of the system’s excellence is clear, unwavering sound, and a measured wow and flutter of only 0,04% (WRMS)

Auto-Space/Record Mute
To provide absolute silence between recorded selections, teh TC-K61 incorporates a unique Auto- Space/Record Mute control. The control can be used to automatically attain a timed, four-second space unwanted program material, such as FM commercials, with four seconds of silence, or insert longer or shorter gaps, as desired.

Auto Play and Memory Cue
Another convenience of the K61’s transport is Auto Play. Auto Play allows you to preset teh deck to transfer from rewind into play at the beginning of the tape, by simply touching the rewind and play buttons simultaneously. With the memory feature selected, the K61 can be put into rewind and it will stop automatically when the tape counter reads ‘999’. Or with Memory Cue, you can touch the rewind and play buttons simultaneously to have the deck rewind to ‘999’ and transfer into the play mode automatically.

Timer Operation
With an external timer, the K61 can be set to record or play back automatically, at a predeterminated time. You can have the K61 record FM broadcasts in your absence, or even wake to music from your high fidelity system. Unlike other timer provisions, the number of recording or playback operations in the unattended period is limited only by the capacity of the timer.

LED Meters with Two Types of Peak Hold
Like the TC-K44, the K61 incorporates Sony’s sixteen-segment LED Peak Program Meters, whose parallel-bar arrangement shows channel balance at a glance. In the K61 however, the meters’ range is calibrated from -40 dB to +8 dB, and there are two methods of holding the highest-peak indication. In the automatic mode, the peak-hold re-sets after 2,5 seconds, or when a higher peak is established. Or, if you wish, you can set the meters for manual hold, at the touch of a button.

Specifications TC-K61
Number of Heads: Two
Head Type (Rec/Play): S&F
Erase Head Type: 4-Gap Ferrite
Bias Adjustment: 2-Position Switch for Type I
Drive Type: Belt
Motor Type: Capstan - BSL; Spooling - High-Torque
Meter Type: Peak LEDs 16 x 2 parallel
Fast-Forward/Rewind Time (C-60): 80 sec.
Wow and Flutter: 0,04% (WRMS); 0,12% (DIN 45507)
Frequency Response (-3 to +3 dB, Re: -20 dB):
Metallic Tape : 30 - 17,000 Hz
FeCr Tape : 30 - 17,000 Hz
EHF Tape : 30 - 16,000 Hz
SHF Tape : 30 - 14,000 Hz
Frequency Response at Re 0 dB:
Metallic Tape : 30 - 13,000 Hz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (Dolby NR Off, Re: 3% THD, Peak, IHF-A weighted):
Metallic Tape : 59 dB
FeCr Tape : 59 dB
EHF Tape : 57 dB
SHF Tape : 52 dB
Improvement with Dolby NR On : Up to 5 dB at 1 kHz, 10 dB at 5 kHz or Above
Total Harmonic Distortion (1 kHz, Re: 0 dB Record Level):
Metallic Tape : 1,0%
FeCr Tape : 1,0%
Crosstalk (1 kHz, tracks): 60 dB
Separation (1 kHz, channels): 35 dB
Erasure (400 Hz, incl. Mettallic Tape): 60 dB
Bias Frequency: 105 kHz
Meter Range: -40 , +8 dB
Line Input Sensitivity/Impedance: 77,5 mV/50 k Ohms
Mic Input Sensitivity/Impedance: 0,25 mV/Low
Line Output:
Level ‘Fixed’: 435 mV
Level ‘Variable’: 27,5 - 435 mV
Line Output: Load Impedance, Nominal: 50 k Ohms
Load Impedance, Minimum: 10 k Ohms
Headphone Output Level: 4,9 - 77,5 mV
Nominal Headphone Impedance : 8 Ohms
Power Requirements: AC 120 V, 60 Hz
Power Consumption: 26 W max
Dimensions (W x H x D): 430 x 130 x 290 mm (17" x 5-1/8" x 11-3/8")
Weight: 5,6 kg (12 lbs 5 oz)
Full-Function Remote Control: RM-50 (optional

Luxman C-03

 "Luxman C-03 has a fair number of controls reflecting its operational versatility, yet these are helpfully laid out and differentiated as to shape with discreet little lamps indicating the source selected, tape monitor mode and straight-through mode. Basically there is provision for five source inputs, including Video 1 and 2 with switching for audio and video signals, perhaps from a VCR, LaserVision or CDV disc player, plus two tape playback inputs labelled Tape!

  The phono input has an associated selector switch on the front panel giving a choice of two capacitance loading values for moving-magnet cartridges and three resistive values for moving coil. The recording selector either sends the selected source to all recorder outlets or permits dubbing (of video signals as well as audio) between two machines, in which case a normal source can be listened to while dubbing is in progress.

 As is common nowadays there is a 'straight' mode bypassing the tone controls, subsonic filter and balance control circuits for minimum signal losses or interference. However, rather unusually, this can be switched to operate in the phono chain as well as for CD. There is also a tone in/out bypass switch, mono/stereo switch and an output selector for the two pairs of output phono sockets, routing the signals to power amplifier A, B, A + B or headphones. The output impedance is relatively low (20 Ohms) which allows flexible operation of two stereo power amplifiers or pairs of active loudspeakers over specifications"

The output circuit operates in Class A, avoiding crossover distortion, with the so-called 'straight' modes for phono and CD taking the shortest possible wiring route. They even bypass the normal source selection buttons. There are separate regulated power supplies for the phono, tone control and video amplifier stages, with the volume control placed after the control amplifiers. Luxman have unfortunately fallen into line with the current Japanese fashion for daft names and incorporated what they call a STAR (Signal Transit for Accurate Response) circuit which, apart from its name, is a sensible provision of separate power and earth lines for each stage. Proper use of the fairly generous internal dimensions keeps a safe distance between mutually sensitive parts of the circuit."
Gramophone, august 1988

Specifications C-03
Output Voltage:  1 V
Input Sensitivity (1 kHz):
CD, Tuner, VCD 1&2, Tape/DaT : 150 mV ±15%
Phono MM (47 kΩ) Cap-1, Cap-2 : 2,5 mV ±15%
Phono MC (3Ω) : 0,1mV ±15%
Phono MC (40Ω - 100Ω) : 0,22 mV ±15%
Input Impedance (1 kHz)
CD, Tuner, VCD 1&2, Tape/DaT : 32 kΩ ±20%
Phono MM (47 kΩ) Cap-1, Cap-2 : 47 kΩ ±20%
Phono MC (3Ω) : 120 Ω  ±20%
Phono MC (40Ω) : 40 Ω ±20%
Phono MC (100Ω) : 100 Ω ±20%
Total Harmonic Distortion (1 kHz)
CD, Tuner (Pre-out : 2V) : 0,01%
Phono MM (Rec-out : 5V) : 0,01%
VCD 1 & 2 (Pre-out : 2V) : 0,01%
Frequency Response
CD, Tuner : 20 - 100 kHz  ±0,5 dB
Phono MM (Rec-out:1V) : 100 - 10 kHz  ±0,5 dB
Tape, DAT, VCD 1 & 2 : 20 - 100 kHz  ±1,5 dB
Tone Control
Bass (100 Hz) : ±6 ±1,5 dB
Treble (10 kHz) : ±6 ±1,5 dB
Loudness (VR -30 dB) : ±6 ±1,5 dB (100 Hz); ±4 ±1,5 dB (10 kHz)
S/N Ratio (Input Terminal Shorted)
CD, Tuner, DAT, VCD 1 & 2 : 77,8 dB
Phono MM Cap-1 : 43,8 dB
Phono MC (3Ω, 40Ω, 100Ω) : 43,8 dB
Residual Noise : 88,2 dB
Cross Talk (Pre-out 5V=0dB, Input Terminal Shorted at 1kHz):  70 dB
Power Supply : 100/120/220/240 V,  50/60 Hz
Semiconductors:  6 ICs, 61 Transistors, 8 FETs, 18 Diodes, 11 Zener Diodes
Dimensions (W x H x D):  438 x 328 x 88 mm
Weight:  5,5 kg

Luxman M-03

 "Luxman M-03 power amplifier is rated at 200 Watts per channel into 8 ohms and is suitably massive, with huge vaned heat-sinks, each weighing 15kg, running along both ends of the chassis, and a power supply based around two 15,0001.tF block capacitors for each channel. There is provision for combined (bridged) mono operation when the power rating becomes 480 Watts into 8 Ohms. This mode is called BTL (Balanced Transformerless) and must be deliberately selected on the rear panel, where a security plate has been fixed at the factory to hold the switch in its normal stereo position."

 "Separate left and right channel attenuators are situated on the front panel and there is also a two-channel digital display of peak power level in Watts. A switch gives a choice of 1 or 3 seconds hold-time for the peak reading to make for easier monitoring under various programme conditions or, if you find the display distracting, it can be switched off. The power reading is related to the nominal loudspeaker impedance value selected on a three-position switch on the rear panel (4, 6 or 8 Ohms). Heavy duty terminals are fitted for two pairs of loudspeakers and front panel switches select speakers A, B, A + B or both off. "

 "M-03 power amplifier handbook shows how it would be possible to operate the C-03 preamplifier into two M-03 power amps each in the BTL mono mode to provide a hefty 480 Watts-per-channel (neighbours, ears and loudspeakers permitting)."
Gramophone ,   august 1988
Specifications M-03
Power Output (8Ω, 20-20,000Hz, 0,03% THD):  200 W
Max Power Output (at 1% THD, 4Ω, 1kHz):  250 W
Input Sensitivity/Impedance (1kHz):  1V/45 KΩ  ±20%
Frequency Response:  20 - 20,000 Hz +0 -0,3 dB (5Hz - 100kHz -0 -1 dB, +0,5 -2 dB)
S/N Ratio (input Terminal Shorted):  110 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (at 200W Output, 8Ω, 20-20,000Hz):  0,03%
Residual Noise:  120 µV
Cross Talk:  1 kHz, 70 dB (10 kHz, 55 dB)
BTL Section
THD (at 450W, 8Ω, 20-20,000Hz):  0,1%
Max Power Output:  450 W (at 1% THD, 8Ω, 1kHz)
Input Sensitivity (1kHz):  0,75 V  ±20%
S/N Ratio (Input Terminal Shorted):  96,5 dB
Power Supply:  AC 120/220/240 V  50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  120V, 10 A
Semiconductors:  11 ICs, 74 Transistors, 4 FETs, 47-49 Diodes, 6-8 Zener Diodes
Dimensions (W x H x D):  438 x 166 x 420 mm
Weight:  23,6 kg

Pioneer A-60

Dynamic Power Supply : Improves power efficiency twofold for higher dynamic power during peak passages.
Non-Switching Power Amplifier : Eliminates switching distortion and drastically reduces all other types of distortion.
DC-Servo High-Gain Phono Equalizer : Features low-noise FET input and DC servo, allowing the use of any popular types of cartridges, moving-magnet or moving-coil.
"Line Straight" Switch : Provides  purest possible sound quality by bypassing tone controls and loudness switch.
LED Indicators : For "Line Straight" subsonic filter and input selectors (including tape).

Amplifier Section
Power Output:  100 watts per channel (8Ω, from 20 to 20,000 Hz with no more than 0,007% THD)
Continuous Power Output (at 1 kHz):  120 watts per channel (8Ω,  0,007% THD)
Damping Factor:  60 (20 - 20,000 Hz, 8Ω)
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono MM : 2,5 mV/50 kΩ
Phono MC : 0,2 mV/100 Ω
Tuner, CD/Aux, Tape 1 & 2 : 150 mV/50 kΩ
Phono Overload Level (thd 0,005%, 1 kHz):
Phono MM : 200 mV
Phono MC : 17 mV
Output level/Impedance:
Tape Rec 1 & 2 : 150 mV/2,2 kΩ
Frequency Response:
Phono MM (RIAA Equalization) : 20 Hz - 20 kHz ±0,2 dB
Tuner, CD/Aux, Tape 1 & 2 : 5 Hz - 100 kHz,  +0 -3 dB
Tone Control
Bass : ±10 dB (100 Hz)
Treble : ±10 dB (10 kHz)
Low (Subsonic) : 15 Hz (-6 dB/oct)
Loudness Contour (Vol. Control at -40 dB) :+6 dB (100 Hz), +3 dB (10 kHz)
Hum and Noise (IHF, short circuited, A network):
Phono MM : 86 dB (2,5 mV)
Phono MC : 70 dB (0,25 mV)
Tuner, CD/Aux, Tape 1 & 2 : 105 dB (150 mV)
Hum and Noise (DIN, continuous power/50 mW):
Phono MM : 74.61 dB
Tuner, CD/Aux, Tape 1 & 2 : 88/62 dB
General (S model)
Power Requirements:  110/120/220/240 V (switchable), 50/60 dB
Power Consumption:  220 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 130 x 331 mm (16-9/16" x 5-3/16" x 13-1/16")
Weight:  9,4 kg (20 lb 12 oz)


 Power Section
The JR-S600's output stage has an initial differential amplifier, followed by a second differential amplifier and a current-mirror Class-A predriver. The final stage is a Darlington-connected parallel pus-pull pure complementary OCL circuit. Included to safeguard the power transistors and your speakers from accidental damage is the self-restoring, patented JVC Triple Power Protection circuit.

Power Supply
Power regulation during high-amplitude musical passages is more efficient and powerful than in conventional supply systems with the use of a toroidal coil transformer to reduce distortion and crosstalk in the subsonics. Two huge 22,000µF capacitors deliver rated output without strain. What's more, mutual interference in the operation of the phono equalizer, S.E.A. and tuner circuits is avoided with the use of a constant-voltage ± dual power supply.

Phono Equalizer
Electronic FET switching for Phono 1 and 2 eliminates switching noise, while allowing direct connection of the phono equalizer circuit with the input terminals fro reduced hum noise. RIAA equalization ±0,5dB is excellent

FM and AM Highlights
A 4-gang frequency-linear tuning capacitor and a low-noise FET increase sensitivity and tuning precision. The high-inertia dual-flywheel design, a unique lateral-tune control and stretch-free "Radial Cord" cables in the tuning mechanism mean quick dependable operation.
A single-unit 4-resonator ceramic filter in combination with a 4-pole phase-linear LC filter permits flat group-delay characteristics to help achieve unprecedented selectivity in FM of 80dB without degrading other specifications.

Other FM/AM Features
High fidelity listening on FM, improved through Dolby processed noise reduction, can be enjoyed with the JR-S600 from JVC thanks to its built-in FM noise reduction system, requiring no adjustment. In the AM section, a high-integration IC with self-contained RF amp works in concert with a ceramic filter and low-pass filter to assure clear, pleasant AM sound.

Tape Dubbing
Record any source into either or both connected stereo tape decks with the convenience of monitor/playback controls foreach. With the Dubbing switch in you can copy a tape from either deck to the other.

Audio Section
Output Power:  2 x 110 W (minimum  RMS, at 8 Ω, from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, with no more than 0,1% THD)
Load Impedance:  4 - 16 Ω
Total Harmonic Distortion:  0,1%
IM Distortion:  0,1% (at rated power)
S.E.A. Section
Center Frequencies:  40, 250 Hz  1, 5, 15 kHz
Control Range:  ±12 dB
FM Tuner Section
Usable Sensitivity:  1,7 µV
Alt. Channel Selectivity:  80 dB
S/N Ratio:  72 dB (mono); 65 dB (stereo)
1 kHz : 0,1% (mono); 0,25% (stereo)
6 kHz : 0,25% (mono); 0,4% (stereo)
Capture Ratio: 1,0 dB
Stereo Separation:  50 dB (1 kHz); 35 dB (10 kHz)
AM Tuner Section
Usable Sensitivity:  30 µV, 300 µV/m
Power Source:  AC 120 V, 60 Hz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  22-1/16" x 6-11/16" x 17"
Weight:  40,8 lbs

Dynavector DV/20A and DV/20B Type2

 These cartridges are the successors of the famous Dynavector Ultimo 20A and 20B types which have been enjoying such very good world-wide reviews for their excellent musicality, technical performance and unusually high output voltage for moving coil construction.
Based an this very great success, we have re-designed them to even higher standards. Both the 20A and 20B Type 2 can now deliver an amazingly high output voltage of 3,6 mV, together with an astonishingly flat frequency response to 20 kHz.
The tracking ability is superb to match the most difficult direct cut discs. All its predecessors features are retained, but great technological advancement has given the new Type 2s more easiness and musicality. Thanks to very high output voltage and the light weight of the new models, many more music lovers will be able to enjoy the realistic sound of the moving coil construction without the nuisance or added expense of additional transformers or pre pre-amplifiers.

Specifications DV/20A Type2
Output Voltage:  3,6 mV at 1 kHz, 5cm/sec
Separation:  Over 20 dB at 1 kHz
Frequency Response:  20 - 40,00 Hz
Stylus:  Elliptical (0,3 x 0,7 mil)
Cantilever:  Tapered Aluminium
Compliance:  24 x 10¯̄⁶ cm/dyn
Wiring Impedance:  R = 510Ω  L = 1,0 mH
Tracking Force:  1,8 gr
Total Weight:  5,3 gr

Specifications DV/20B Type2
Output Voltage:  3,6 mV at 1 kHz, 5cm/sec
Separation:  Over 20 dB at 1 kHz
Frequency Response:  20 - 40,00 Hz
Stylus:  Elliptical (0,3 x 0,7 mil)
Cantilever:  Straight Solid Berylium
Compliance:  24 x 10¯̄⁶ cm/dyn
Wiring Impedance:  R = 510Ω  L = 1,0 mH
Tracking Force:  1,8 gr
Total Weight:  5,3 gr

Dynavector DV/10X Type3

Dynavector DV/10X Type3
Since the first debut as DV/10X in 1977, this cartridge has been widely accepted as the best high output moving coil cartridge in its lower price range. It enjoyed the Design and Engineering Award at CES Chicago on 1978 and 1981.
DV/10X Type3 was recreated as the modern low mass high output MC cartridge and every features of its predecessors are further improved by the advanced technological achievement by Dynavector Systems, Ltd.

Output Voltage:  2,5 mV at 1 kHz, 5cm/sec
Separation:  Over 20 dB at 1 kHz
Frequency Response:  20 - 20,00 Hz
Stylus:  Elliptical
Cantilever:  Tapered Aluminium
Compliance:  20 x 20¯̄⁶ cm/dyn
Wiring Impedance:  R = 300Ω  L = 0,7 mH
Tracking Force:  1,7 gr
Total Weight:  4,6 gr

Pioneer SX-D5000 (1980)

 It doesn't take much shopping around to make the discovery that most stereo receivers these days look pretty much alike, with the tuning dials dominating the frontface, with knobs and controls often adding to the clutter. Now comes Pioneer to make a major new contribution to the aesthetics of receiver design. And make a break from the concept of the traditional receiver. The SX-D5000 is totally redesigned. All controls Iexcept Volume and Balance) and switches are sliders and pushbuttons, not levers, rockers or rotary knobs. Indications are all digital, even the one for tuned frequency. You don't have to be a stereo expert to see how these new lines and contours add up to a distinctive kind of elegance. To see how the SX-D5000 gives the appearance of a precision transceiver, with all controls neatly grouped into three.
Visually attractive, functional, operationally comfortable - a rare combination of design qualities in a receiver. Would you expect less from Pioneer?
The SX-D5000 is what receivers should be like in the 1980s. Once again, Pioneer makes the first impression.

 Too Hot to Handle
The traditional alternative to the Class-B amp is Class-A. The former amp employs the on-off switching of transistors in order to minimize heat loss. In Class-A, a large amount of bias (or idle current) is applied to keep the transistors ON at all times, whether or not a signal is present for amplification. This avoids switching distortion. However, as much as 75% of the energy consumed is bled off in the form of heat, adding up to waste, potential damage and inefficiency. Attempts to create a hybrid "A/B" and other alternatives have always ended in frustration.

Pioneer Vari-Bias to the Rescue.
Frustration, however, is often the mother ofinvention.Not so long ago our engineers began to work on what they call :a very imple high-speed bias servo" to increase Class-A efficiency. An inspired breakthrough led to the Pioneer Vari-Bias circuit, which constantly monitors the amplitude of incoming signal, then automatically controls the amount of bias fed to the power transistors.
While they "rest" during no-signal periods they get only a trickle - just enough to keep them from switching off. Actually, this circuit isso simple it does not limit the transient response of the transistors in any way .
DC with a Difference
Still another advantage of the SX-D5000's power amp is its special DC or Direct Current configuration. What makes it special is the coupling capacitors we've used at the input of the amp to safeguard the circuits and your speaker systems. If this precaution is not taken, ultra-low-frequency signals which might be picked up, say, from a warped record can  cause annoying "Doppler distortion" in drivers, adversely modulating the audible frequencies. Pioneer's DC (with a Difference) however, removes signal-delaying capacitors from the negative feedback loops to reduce phase distortion. This contributes immensely to sharp and densely-textured sonic imagery in the final reproduction.

Power Amp Highlights
Continuous Power Output is 80 watts per channel, min. At 8 ohms from 20 to 20,000 hertz with no more than 0,005% total harmonic distortion.
Heat Sink - is the "I-Skived" type, which uses thinly-sliced metal fins on a lightweight but solid frame to provide as much as 50% better heat dissipation than in conventional types.
Protection Circuitry - has gold-plated dual-contact relays for fast response and unfailing dependability should power-related mishaps occur. The receiver and your speakers are fully protected; the circuitry mutes power on/off noise, protects power transistors and speakers from abnormal direct-current potentials and overload at the output.

 Accurate Preamp and Versatile Control

Fluroscan power Output Meter
For added accuracy, we've chosen the Pioneer-exclusive Fluroscanmeter instead of the needle-type analog types. For superior readability, the bar-graph sections of each channel have 12 separate fluorescent segments each. They thus achieve a large and clearly-calibrated display that is easier to read than ordinary VU-type meters. Range is 0,01 to 80 watts, referred to an 8- ohm speaker load.

Low-Noise Phono Equalizer
Two low-distortion monolithic Ics are used, one in each channel, in the phono equalizer to provide exceptionally good signal-to-noise ratio (82dB). Given this circuit design with its precise construction, RIAA equalization is achieved accurately within ±0,2dB over the 20 to 20,000 Hz range with never more than 0,005% THD. Phono overload is 200 mV, permitting you to use high-output cartridges if you desire.

Low-Distortion Tone Control Amp
This is also an IC-built circuit block, employing NFB to lower distortion to 0,005% or less (4V output) over the 20 to 20,000 Hz range. Bass and Treble adjustments are made on the two slider controls - each with 11 click stops - so they never ad audible distortion to your music.
When the controls are centered at the "0" positions, the tone amp is defeated entirely and you get a flat response at the output.

 Attenuator-Type Master Volume Control
We've improved the "feel" of the master volume control by providing it with decibel calibrations from 0 down to -7 dB. You know at a glance how much power your receiver is delivering on the average, which should be reflected on the Fluroscan power metwr. For operating convenience, the control has 41 detents or click stops.

Preamp/Control Highlights
Function Indicators (FM/AM/Aux/Phono) -  Pioneer's "Light Touch" buttons are employed to indicate the selected function. The buttons are lit and glow green when engaged.
Speakers (A/B) - switches with LED indicators
Low (Subsonic) Filter - 18 Hz with -6 dB/octave curve
Tape Monitor& Duplicate - switches for decks 1 and 2; deck-to-deck dubbing is easily accomplished between the two in either direction
Loudness, Balance, Mode (Stereo/Mono) and Muting (-20 dB) controls.
Adaptor - switch to patch in a signal processor unit such as a graphic equalizer, dynamic processor or reverberation unit.
Pre/Power Amp Separation - is possible bia jumpers on blck panel, still another rare receiver feature of the SX-D5000.

 Drift is Banished by Pioneer's Quartz-PLL Synthesizer

Quartz-PLL is a Gem
Two problems you may be familiar with in your own stereo system: Hiss-ridden, distortion-marred reception from your favorite stations. And "drift - along with incidental noise and distortion - that puts a perfectly tuned station out of tune as heat inside a receiver builds up. These are the problems that the design of the SX-D5000, and its Quartz-PLL synthesizer, avoids.
The front end of the SX-D5000 uses a gem-loke quartz crystal as the most accurate and dependable controller  of the local-oscillator frequency yet devised. It's so accurate that it's used in transmitters at broadcasting stations. The steady frequency derived from the quartz crystal is compared with the desired station frequency via a PLL thousands of times per second. Drift simply cannot develop. Tuning is always accurate and precise.
Reliable performance is enhanced by a combination of the superior qualites of quartz with the astonishing capabilites of two microelectric C-MOS LSIs, one to provide frequency synthesis and the other to make possible Autoscan, Memory and "last Call"

Electronic Varicape for Ganged Tuning Capacitor
In the SX-D5000 a team of varicaps for FM and AM is used instaed of the conventional mechanically ganged variable capacitors. Because they work purely electronically, degradation of basic specifications - even over long periods of time - does not occur. Varicaps provide both the desired tuning capacity of conventional capacitors and the extra advantage of being able to control preset fixed voltages commanded by special Ics at will. This means you can preset your favorite stations and tune them in without scanning the entire FM or AM dial - at the touch of a button.
The use of an FET as teh RF amp means still higher sensitivity, better rejection of interference and improved resistance to overload in any area.

 FM IF with Special Filters
The front end signal goes in what's called the IF section for amplification and removal of noise. In this section we've used three special 2-pole ceramic filters with flat group-delay response to assure still lower distortion.

Integrated Circuits Made to Pioneer's Specifications
Two Pioneer-exclusive Ics are employed in the IF and MPX demodulator sections of the SX-D5000 for reliability and dependability. One (PA-3007A) serves as an FM IF amp/detector. It improves the signal-to-noise ratio, lessens distortion and eliminates "TV buzzes". The 82dB signal-to-noise ratio of this unit is rare.
The other IC is called PA-4006A and it contains a PLL stereo demodulator. It makes FM stereo listening cleaner and more accurate.  The PA-4006A also doubles as automatic pilot signal canceller, eliminating the 19 kHz "switching" signal and ensuring that the audio output is never compromised; even if the modulation percentage of the transmitter changes (as it often does when you tune to a relayed, not main, transmission), the canceller tracks the change.

New Air-core Quadrature Disciminator
Pionner's new-type quadrature discriminator is a combination of an air-core micro-inductor and a detection transformer in a single pack. Benefits include a higher signal-to-noise  ratio, wider channel separation,wider frquency response and a more natural tonal quality. These qualites are enhanced by the use of a separate low-pass filter, one in each channel at the output of the PLL stereo demodulator.

 Pushbutton Station Selection and Other Tuning Conveniences

Autoscan for On-Target Tuning at a Touch
Once the FM function button is pressed, simply tiuch the UP (or Down) button and the digital synthesizer begins to scan the FM frequency band in 100 kHz steps at high speed, searching for the nearest station of acceptable strength. Once a strong station signal is located, scanning stops and the station's frequency is "locked". If this is not the station you desire, simply repeat the process until you find it. When scanning reaches either end of the frequency band, it automatically "retraces." All in All, simple on-target tuning, push-button simple.
Naturally, when the AM function is selected, you get the same automatic convenience. Scan intervals are 1 kHz for Am station selection.

Manual Scan for Added Convenience
Manual Scan is another Pioneer feature you'll quickly come to appreciate. Setting the Auto/Manual Tuning switch to Manual gives you two "submodes" - two different speeds depending on the degree of pressure you apply to the Up or Down buttons. The two speeds are:
Step Tuning : A light touch on either button moves you up or down the tuning dial in steps (100 kHz for FM and 1 kHz for AM). This mode is used for sampling each and every scan interval.
Rapid Tuning : As you continue to press one of the buttons, the frequency band is scanned from end to end at high speed. You use this mode to move rapidly from one band area to another.

Memory - An Unforgettable Convenience
Electronic accuracy pays off in yet another feature in the SX-D5000, a handy Memory facility for FM and AM. To preset a station, you simply select it with one of the station call button numbered up to six. And you can repeat the process for up to six programmed stations for both FM and AM. Station recall is at the touch of a button.
You can unplug the SX-D5000 for up to about three days without losing the preset stations. Back-up circuitry, not batteries, makes this possible.

Fluroscan Digital Tuned-Frequency Readout
Whatever FM station you've tuned, its frequency is shown in five digits on the Pioneer Fluroscan display, one of the most accurate frequency readout displays ever developed. One immediately appreciable advantage over conventional needle-type pointers is that Fluroscan is not subject to parallax, the optical illusion that plagues needle-type pointers.
The SX-D5000 features a five-digit display. Resolution extends to 100 kHz for FM

Fluroscan Tuning/Signal Indicators
So that you can find the desired FM station quickly and accurately even during Manual Scan, we have provided easy-to-read tuning/signal indicators on the Fluroscan panel face. Observe the simple Tuning indicator; the blue bar light when you are right on station (±30 kHz).
The Signal Strength meter on the Fluroscan panel just below the Tuning meter works both for FM and AM. It has five separate "steps" and operates from an elaborate circuit using two special Ics.Together, these precision-built aids enhance the SX-D5000's tuning accuracy for both FM and AM.

"Last Call" Tuning Aid
"Last Call" means that the frequency of the last station you tune before you turn the receiver off is kept intact until you re-power the tuner. This is an important feature for persons who make unattended recordings off the air.

Tuner Highlights
AM Stereo output for future adaptor is provided: output is 450 kHz, buffered.
FM/AM Muting; inter-station noise is hardly audible while you tune an FM or AM station. Muting for AM is a feature rare in receivers today.
LED Indicators for station call buttons
Ball-Joint AM Bar Antenna; swivles to almost any degree for better AM reception.
25µS Dolby De-Emphasis Switch; with an appropriate Dolby decoder conected to the SX-D5000, you can enjoy hiss-free Dolbyized broadcasts immediately.

Continuous Power Output:  80 watts per channel, min. At 8 ohms from 20 to 20,000 Hz with no more than 0,005% THD
Total Harmonic Distortion: 
No more than 0,005% (continuous rated power output)
No more than 0,004% (40 watts per channel power output)
Intermodulation Distortion (50 Hz : 7,000 kHz = 4:1): 
No more than 0,005% (continuous rated power output)
No more than 0,004% (40 watts per channel power output)
Frequency Response:  3 to 450,000 Hz +0 dB, -3 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:  1V/50 kΩ (Power amp In)
Speaker : A, B, A +B, OFF
Headphones : Low impedance
Damping Factor:  60 (20 to 20,000 Hz, 8Ω)
Hum and Noise (short circuited, A network):  115 dB

Pre-amp Section
Input Sensitivity/Impedance
Phono : 2,5 mV/50 kΩ
Aux, Tape 1 & 2, Adaptor In:  150 mV/50 kΩ
Phono Overload Level:  200 mV(1 kHz, THD 0,005%)
Output level/Impedance:
Tape Rec 1 & 2, Adaptor Out:  150 mV
Pre Output: 1V/1kΩ
Total Harmonic Distortion:  No more than 0,005% (20 to 20,000Hz, 4V output)
Frequency Response
Phono (RIAA Equalization):  20 to 20,000 Hz,  ±0,2 dB
Aux, Tape 1 &2, Adaptor:  5 to 100,000 Hz,  +1,0 dB, -3,0 dB
Tone Control
Bass : ±8 dB (100 Hz)
Treble : ±8 dB (10 kHz)
Low (Subsonic) : 18 Hz (6 dB/oct)
Loudness Contour (volume control set  at -40dB) : +6 dB (100 Hz), +3 dB (10 kHz)
Hum and Noises (Short-circuitedm A network)
Phono : 82 dB
Tuner, Aux, Tape 1 & 2, Adaptor:  100 dB
Muting : -20 dB

FM Tuner Section
Usable Sensitivity:  10,2 dBf (1,8 µV); (Mono)
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity:
Mono : 15,7 dBf (3,2 µV)
Stereo : 34,2 dBf (28,2 µV)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (at 85 dBf): 
Mono : 82 dB
Stereo : 78 dB
Distortion (at 65 dB)
100 Hz : 0,1% (mono); 0,2% (stereo)
1 kHz : 0,07% (mono); 0,1% (stereo)
6 kHz : 0,1% (mono); 0,2% (stereo)
Frequency Response: 30 to 15,000 Hz ±0,5 dB
Capture Ratio:  1,0 dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity: 80 dB (400 kHz)
Spurious Response Ratio:  80 dB
Image Response Ratio:  80 dB
IF Response Ratio:  90 dB
AM Suppression Ratio:  60 dB
Muting Threshold:  35,7 dBf (32 µV)
Stereo Separation:  50 dB (1 kHz), 35 dB (30 Hz to 15 kHz)
Subcarrier Ratio:  65 dB
SCA Rejection Ratio:  65 dB
Antenna Input:  300 Ω balanced; 75 Ω unbalanced

AM Tuner Section
Sensitivity:  300 µV/m (IHF, ferrite antenna);  15 µV (IHF, external antenna)
Selectivity: 30 dB
Signal-to-Noise ratio:  45 dB
Image Response Ratio:  30 dB
IF Response Ratio:  60 dB
Antenna:  Ferriote loopstick antenna

Semiconductors:  11 FETs; 24 ICs; 98 transistors; 100 Diodes

Power Requirement:  120 V, 60 Hz ;  220 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  250 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  499 x 173 x 460 mm (19-5/8" x 6-13/16" x 18-1/8")
Weight:  16,2 kg (35 lbs) without package