What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

McIntosh C-27

 McIntosh model C 27 preamplifier features:
You Choose From Seven Different Program Sources.  The input switch selects from five different sources or you can choose to listen to either of two tape recorders at the push of a button.
You Always Get The Ideal Stereo Image. The McIntosh seven position mode selector has facilities to permit the proper balancing of a stereo system to maximize stereo imaging. It assists in easily restoring proper stereo perspective should you play an improperly made recording.
Tape Recording and Playback Made Easy. Tape input, tape output and switching facilities are provided for two three-head tape recorders. Simply push a button to listen to either one - or record from any selected source on either or both - or - copy from one tape recorder to another while listening to an entirely different program. You can instantaneously monitor either tape recorder.
Listen To Your Quiet records, Quietly. Any unwanted noise (hiss, rumble, fry, etc.) can be reduced with the four position filter switch. It alows the removal of low frequency noise, high frequency noise or both yet retaining as much of the wanted program as possible.
 Control Remote Loudspeakers From Your Preamplifier. Through a unique McIntosh design, interconnecting the preamplifier and power amplifier, you have On/Off control of two separate sets of stereo speakers. Another advantage of this unique design is the ability to plug your headphones into a front panel jack for private listening.
Stepped Tone Controls Independent In Each Channel> settings are precise and repeatable in each channel, independently. Each tone control is a separate eleven position switch concentrically mounted. Each step is connected to carefully selected resistors and capacitors to give the precise frequency curve shape. Because the tone circuit component parts are not in contact with the switch surfaces, as in ordinary continuously variable rotary controls, they never change, never get noisy and provide exact, repeatability settings.
You Can Listen at Low Volumes With Equal Pleasure. A continuously variable loudness control lets you enjoy full frequency reponse and warmth of music regardless of the room volume you choose. As volume is reduced, the frequency response is adjusted to complement the human ear response characteristics, the Fletcher Munson effect.
 The Constant Loudness Balance Control. The McIntosh balance control adjust each channel independently for proper stereo imaging without a modification of overall stereo volume in the room. While natural balance is at the center of the control; adjustment to either right or left compensates for program variations or room acoustic differences.
Precision Step Attenuator Volume Control. Ideal volume control tracking accuracy and noise free performance are two of the considearable benefits of the McIntosh Precision Step Attenuator. It is a thirty-two step, 70 dB range control with unheared of tracking accuracy within 1 dB. The extreme accuracy is obtained through special electronically controlled resistance element trimming. The accuracy and quiet operation are maintained because the switch commutator touches only the switch contact pad and not the precision resitor elements.
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 20 kHz (+0 -0,5 dB)
Harmonic Distortion:  will not exceed 0,05% (at rated output 20Hz-20kHz)
Hum and Noise: 
Phono 1, 2 :  80 dB below 10 mV input (unweighted); 85 dB IHFA (weighted)
Tuner, Aux, Tape 1,2 :  85 dB (unweighted); 90 dB IHF A(weighted)
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono 1, 2 :  2 mV/47 k Ω and 100pF
Tuner, Aux, Tape 1,2 :  250 mV/100 k Ω
Output Level/Impedance:
Main Output :  2,5 volts with rated input, less than 1 k Ω source impedance (max. output is greater than 10 volts)
Tape Output :  2,5 volts with rated input, less than 1,5 k Ω source impedance (max. output is greater than 10 volts)
Center Channel Output (L+R) :  2,5 volts with rated input to both channels, less than 1,2 k Ω source impedance, to operate into 22 k Ω load or higher
Voltage Amplification In Decibels:
Phono 1, 2 :  to Main Output 62 dB; to Tape Output 42 dB
Tuner, Aux tape 1, 2 :  to Main Output 20 dB; to Tape Output 0 dB
Tone Controls:
Bass :  -17 dB to +16 dB at 20 Hz (Separate 11 position rotary switches for each channel)
Treble :  -20 dB to +20 dB at 20 kHz (Separate 11 position rotary switches for each channel)
Filter Switch:
Low Frequency (Rumble Filter):  Flat or roll-off 6 dB per octave below 50 Hz, down 12 dB at 20 Hz
High Frequency (Scratch Filter) : Flat or roll-off 6 dB per octave above 5 kHz, down 12 dB at 20 Hz
Semiconductor Complement:  18 Silicon-Planar transistors; 4 Silicon diodes; 5 Light Emitting diodes (LED)
AC Power Outlets:  4 switched and 1 unswitched (red)
Power Requirements:  120 volts 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  15 watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):
Chassis ;  375 x 122 x 330 mm (14-3/4" x 4-13/16" x 13")
Front Panel :  406 x 138 mm (16" x 5-7/16")
Net :  9,1 kg (20 pounds)
Shipping :  14,5 kg (32 pounds)
Finish:  Front panel is anodized gold and black with special McIntosh gold/teal panel nomencalture illumination. Chassis is black

Mounting:  exclusive McIntosh developed professional Panloc

Audio Research Classic 60

 Audio Research now proudly introduces the Classic,  new , moderately priced stereo hybrid amplifiers that come surprisingly close to the benchmark set by the acclaimed Classic 150 hybrid monaural amplifier.
It doesen't take a "golden ear" to immediately perceive the emotinal power and sonic authority the Classic 60 bring to any good musical program. Silences are more silent by an order of magnitude; the soundstage is broad, deep tall; instrumental timbres have an uncommon truth to them; dynamics soft and loud are unbelievably convincing.
 And the Classic 60 are designed to provide years of trouble-free service. You don't need to be a technican to use and enjoy them. Quite simply, the Classic 60 bring world-class audio performance within reach of most music lovers. Audition one today at your nearest Audio Research dealer.
For effortless musicality and value second to none,  it has to be the Classis 60.
The Classic 60 Hybrid Stereo Power Amplifier resembles the long-popular D115 in Audio Research's family of High Definition power amplifiers. But its lineage is strictly Classic 150. which means nothing less than state-of-the-art. In design, construction, musicality and operational convenience, at an affordable price.
Like the Classic 150, the Classic 60 proceeds from the notion that power ratings don't always describe a power amplifier's real capabilities. Far more important are such qualities as dynamic stability, lucidity, subtlety. And to achieve those, audio Research has used its traditional partial cathode coupling along with triode operation of the Classic 60's eight 6550 power output tubes. Additional circuit improvements as well as the usual rigorous parts selection and manufacturing Audio Research is noted for also contribute sonically.
 Translated into the language of listening, this signifies stunning bandwidth, a noise floor virtually beneath audibility and musically fulfilling SPLs at dramatically lower gain settings. Dynamics, timbers of individual instruments, soundstage and musical emotion all surge out rom a black velvet of silence.

Simply put, the Classic60 resolves far more of a musical program than amplifiers rated at two, three or four times its seemingly modest 60 WPC.
But the Classic 60 is easily up to the task of driving all but the most demanding loudspeakers, even in spacious listening rooms. And while it shows modest preamplifiers in their best light,it also shines when coupled with premiere designs, such as Audio Research's Sp14 or Sp15.
 Convenience figures high on the Classic 60's list of attributes, as well. For example, DC balance of the output tubes is maintained automatically, while tube biasing continuously adjust to changes in incoming line voltage. Performance stays razor-sharp without bother some tweaking or adjustments. And quiet fan cooling, along with triode operation, means significantly longer tube life. A Classic 60 owner can look forward to years of low-maintenance performance.
Power Output:  60 watts (minimum continuous at 16 Ω from 15 Hz - 20 kHz with less than 1,0% T.H.D.)Power  Bandwidth:  12 Hz to 40 kHz (-3 dB Points)
Input Sensitivity:  0,55 V RMS for rated output
Input Impedance:  100 k Ω nominal
Output Regulation:  approx.0,3 dB (16 Ω load to open circuit , damping factor approx. 30)
Negative Feedback:  20 dB
Slew Rate:  20 volts/microsecond
Rise Time:  2,0 microsecond
Hum and Noise:  less than 2,0 mV RMS, 84 dB below rated output (20 kHz bandwidth unweighted, inputs shorted)
Power Supply Energy Storage:  approx. 280 joules
Power Requirements:  105 -125 V AC 60 Hz (210-250 V AC 50 Hz)
Power Consumption:  500 watts at rated output; 700 watts maximum, 370 watts at "idle"
Tubes Required: 
for Power Output :  4 x matched pair 6550 (low gas);
for Drivers :  4 x 6FQ7/6CG7
Dimensions (W x H x D):  approx. 480 x 180 x 400 mm (19" x 7" x 15,75")
Handles extend :  41 mm (1-5/8") forward of the front panel
Net :  28,6 kg (63 lbs)
Shipping :  34,5 kg (76 lbs)

Audio Research Classic 30

Audio Research now proudly introduces the Classic 30; new , moderately priced stereo hybrid amplifiers that come surprisingly close to the benchmark set by the acclaimed Classic 150 hybrid monaural amplifier.
It doesen't take a "golden ear" to immediately perceive the emotinal power and sonic authority the Classic 30 bring to any good musical program. Silences are more silent by an order of magnitude; the soundstage is broad, deep tall; instrumental timbres have an uncommon truth to them; dynamics soft and loud are unbelievably convincing.
And the Classic 60-30 are designed to provide years of trouble-free service. You don't need to be a technican to use and enjoy them.
Quite simply, the Classic 30 bring world-class audio performance within reach of most music lovers. Audition one today at your nearest Audio Research dealer.
Putting the state-of-the art. Within everyone's reach… the Classic 30
It's tempting to regard the Classic 30 as merely the smaller sibling of the Classic 60 and Classic 150.
But the skeptical music lover or audiophile who auditions the Classic 30 is in for quite a shock. Because this "little" hybrid stereo amplifier - rated at 30 WPC - packs a sonic authority and eloquent musical veracity that larger, more conventional power amplifiers might envy. Our engineer have discovered that sometimes less is very definitely more.
Of course, the Classic  30 features almost all the same technology as its bigger brothers, scaled down for more modest applications. It has four 6550s instead of eight, two 6FQ7 driver tubes instead of four; no fans, because it runs remarkably cool without any help whatever.
But this smaller design still retains a similar degree of exceptional musical resolution. Even at low gain settings, the Classic 30 is far more musically lucid than amplifiers objectively far more powerful.
The Classic 30 is at its pristine best with moderately efficient loudspeakers in smallto medium sized listening rooms; with program materials that demand high resolution and subtlety rather than pure muscle. In that context, it reveals the same sonic mastery as its more powerful siblings.
But don't take our word for it. Audition a Classic 30 today and discover just how much more music can come alieve , with" less"
Power Output:  30 watts (minimum continuous at 16 Ω from 17 Hz - 20 kHz with less than 1,0% T.H.D.)Power  Bandwidth:  15 Hz to 50 kHz (-3 dB Points)
Input Sensitivity:  ,4 V RMS for rated output
Input Impedance:  100 k Ω nominal
Output Regulation:  approx.0,4 dB (16 Ω load to open circuit , damping factor approx. 23)
Negative Feedback:  19 dB
Slew Rate:  15 volts/microsecond
Rise Time:  3,5 microsecond
Hum and Noise:  less than 0,5 mV RMS, 93 dB below rated output (20 kHz bandwidth unweighted, inputs shorted)
Power Supply Energy Storage:  approx. 150 joules
Power Requirements:  105 -125 V AC 60 Hz (210-250 V AC 50 Hz)
Power Consumption:  300 watts at rated output; 400 watts maximum, 200 watts at "idle"
Tubes Required: 
for Power Output :  2 x matched pair 6550 (low gas);
for Drivers :  2 x 6FQ7/6CG7
Dimensions (W x H x D):  approx. 480 x 180 x 370 mm (19" x 7" x 14,5")
Handles extend :  41 mm (1-5/8") forward of the front panel
Net :  20,9 kg (46 lbs)
Shipping :  28,2 kg (62 lbs)

Aiwa AD-F880

 Superior 3-Head Fidelity with Advanced Features
The AD-F880 is a quality 3-head deck with a variety of advanced features for superb high fidelity performance.
The 3-head design incorporates AIWA's super DX recording and playback heads which feature cores are wound with PC-OCC (Pure Copper-Ohno Continuous Casting) copper wire having ultra high conductivity for greater musical resolution.
The die-cast alloy Bias Shield Head Block minimizes interfrence between the recording and playback heads.
 AIWA's original micro-grain surfaced dual capstan drive improves tape transport performance, while the ATMS (anti-modulation tape stabilizer) damps out resonance for clearer sound reproduction.  The manual recording calibration system and bias fine adjustor allow optimum recording performance with any tape formulation you use.  Dolby B and C noise reduction systems work to reduce unwanted tape hiss, while Dolby HX professional circuitry works during recording to extend high frequency response with any type tape.
Convenience extras like wireless remote control, feather-touch IC logic controls, an electronic tape counter with memory rewind and repeat, and more make the Ad-F880 the kind of deck you can depend on for quality cassette performance.

Track:  4-track, 2-channel
Tape Speed:  1 lps (4,8 cm/sec)
Frequency Response
Normal tape (0 VU):  20 - 11,000 Hz (±3 dB)
CrO₂ tape (0 VU):  20 - 14,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Metal tape (0 VU):  20 - 17,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Normal Tape, (at -20 VU):  20 - 17,000 Hz (±3 dB)
CrO₂ Tape, (at -20 VU):  20 - 18,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Metal Tape, (at -20 VU):  20 - 19,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise  Ratio:  
Dolby B (Metal):  68 dB
Dolby C  (Metal, above 5 kHz):  78 dB
Wow and Flutter (WRMS):  0,035%
Forward and Rewind Time for C-60 Tape:  60 sec.
REC :  Super DX Head
PB:  Super DX Head
Erase Head:  Double-gap Sendust Head
Motors:  DC servo motor x 1, and DC motor x 1
Input Sensitivity /Impedance  (Line-In):  50 mV/50 kΩ
Output Level Impedance:
Line Out:  0,45 V/47 kΩ or higher
Headphone:  0,8 mW/32 Ω
Power Source:  AC  110-120/220-240 V, 50/60 Hz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  430 x 126 x 317 mm
Weight:  5,2 kg

Denon PMA-850

Solid State Stereo Integrated Amplifier
A new series of Denon amplifiers, incorporating a wide dynamic range, low noise MC amplifier. It reaches the highest class in the most fundamental characteristic of amplifiers both in distortion factor and Signal-to-Noise  separation. By coupling all stages with a pure complementary circuit from MC amplifier to power amplifier using both PNP, NPN transistors, an ultra low distortion rate of 85 W +85 W was achieved.
An DC power amplifier placing importance on a quick build-up characteristic by incorporating, a new amplifying element. Distortion factor less than 0,01% (20 Hz - 20 kHz).
Torodial core power transformer which has an independent coil for left and right channels for exceptional regulation.
Employment of an ultra low noise transistor permits a high Signal-to-Noise  ratio, head amplifier for MC type cartridge (74 dn IHF-A), and equalizer amplifier (89 dB IHF-A)
Provided with direct couple switch for direct connection of equalizer amplifier and power amplifier
A unique design of two tone color, imparting a sense of high class structural grace.

Type Amplifier:  All stage pure complementary pushpull system DC circuit
Power Amp Section
Rated Output (Both channel driven):
110 W RMS (at each channel) : 1 kHz (T.H.D. 0,05%, 4 Ω)
85 W RMS (at each channel) :  20 Hz to 20 kHz (T.H.D. 0,01%, 8 Ω)
Total Harmonic Distortion (at rated output, 20 Hz to 20 kHz):  less than 0,01%
Intermodulation Distortion (60 Hz : 7 kHz = 4 : 1)a rated output:  less than 0,02%
Power Bandwidth (both channels driven, 8 Ω):  5 Hz to 100 kHz
Transmission Characteristic:  DC to 100 kHz +0 dB, -1 dB (at 1 watta output)
Frequency Response (at 0,5 W output, -1 dB):  5 Hz - 100 kHz +0 dB -1 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance (20 Hz - 20 kHz):  1 V RMS/50 k Ω  ±10 %
Output Impedance:  less than 0,16 Ω
Signal-to-Noise  Ratio (IHF, A network at input terminal Shorted):  122 dB
Output Terminals:
Speaker :  A & B = 4 - 16 Ω load; A + B = 8 - 16 Ω load
Headphone :  for stereo headphone
Pre Amplifier Section
Pre Amp Output:
Max. Output :  25 V at 50 k Ω
Rated Output :  1 V
T.H.D. :  0,003% at 3 V output
Equalizer Amp Output:
Max. Output :  25 V at 50 k Ω load (T.H.D. 0,01%)
Rated Output :  320 mV
Input Sensitivity/Impedancce
Phono MM 1, 2  :  2,5 mV RMS/ 50 k Ω
Phono MC 3 :  0,37 mV (cartridge impedance 40 Ω)
Tuner :  320 mV / 40 k Ω
Aux, Tape :  320 mV / 40 k Ω
RIAA Deviation (20 Hz to 20 kHz):  ±0,2 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (IHF, A network)
Maximum Allowable Input Phono:  200 mV RMS (1 kHz)
Phono MM :  better than 89 dB (input terminal shorted)
Phono MC :  better than 74 dB (input terminal 40 Ω)
Tuner, Aux, Tape :  better than 105 dB (input terminal shorted)
Aux to pre Out Frequency Response Tone Defeat:  5 Hz to 100 kHz +0 dB, -1 db
Tone Control Frequency Response:
Bass :  100 Hz ±8 dB
Treble :  10 kHz ±8 dB
Filter Characteristic:
Subsonic  :  20 Hz  at 12 dB/oct
High Cut :  9 kHz at 12 dB/oct
Loudness Control Characteristic:
Low Range :  100 Hz +7 dB
High Range :  10 kHz +6 dB
Muting level:  -20 dB
Power Source:  AC 120 V 60 Hz, AC 220/240 V 50/60 Hz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  434 x 164 x 400 mm (17-5/64" x 6-29/64" x 15-3/4")
Weigh:  17 kg (37,5 lbs)

Denon TU-850

 FM Stereo Tuner TU-850
5-gang variable capacitor, a complete front-end incorporating MOS-FET
Low-distortion, high-selectivity 2 system IF Section
PLL IC stereo demodualtor circuit
Unique design and high precision tuning system
Incorporates a recording level check
Equipped 2 large size multi-functioning level meters capable of mesuring amplifier output.

FM Section
Tuning Frequency:  88 to 108 MHz
Usable Sensitivity (IHF):  1,7 µV (9,9 dBf)
Effective Selectivity:  65 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  84 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion: 
Mono :  0,05%
Stereo :  0,08%
Capture Ratio:  0,8 dB
AM Suppression:  65 dB
Image Rejection:  120 dB
IF Rejection:  110 dB
Separation:  50 dB (1 kHz)
Level Meters Indicaton Error:  ±0,2 dB (Ext. Aft. -10 to +30 dB) 1khz
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 15 kHz +0,2 dB -1 dB
Power Source:  AC 120 V 60 Hz; AC 220 / 240 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  13 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  434 x 164 x 400 mm
Weight:  8,9 kg

Technics SL-1200GAE

 Due to the widespread use of CDs, turntable systems disappeared briefly from the market, but their warm sound quality is bringing them back. The direct-drive turntable invented by Technics is still highly acclaimed by audiophiles and DJs in the form of the SL-1200 Series, and there have been many requests to revive the turntable system. As such, we decided to develop a new system for Hi-Fi use. Here we provide an outline of our intent in this development.

Direct-drive is generally considered to be for DJ use, and belt drive is for Hi-Fi use. In the 1970s, when Technics invented direct-drive turntables, their performance and reliability were first recognised by broadcast stations. High acclaim was then received by audiophiles. The high-precision rotation and absence of S/N ratio degradation were particularly attractive to these users. The high torque and reliability of direct-drive were recognised by DJs, and direct-drive turntables became the standard in the club scene.

When developing a direct-drive motor, considerable capital investment is required for large-scale production equipment. In contrast, belt drives can be made with a little cost. Also, compared with direct-drive, belt drive was designed with the latest technology. The view remains that direct-drive is for DJ use and belt drive is for Hi-Fi use. Originally, direct-drive offered superior sound quality. If we redesign the direct-drive motor and control circuitry, we will be able to create a turntable that is superior to other systems.
Technics was also a leader in incorporating innovations, such as vibration-damping materials, cabinet construction, and insulators. Having inherited the DNA of Technics, we do not wish to merely make a replica of the SL-1200.
In other words, our intent in this development is to redefine the direct-drive turntable reference.
The coreless direct drive eliminates cogging and achieves smooth rotation
The twin-rotor construction reduces minute vibration during rotation while maintaining high torque.
The high-precision motor control technology switches the drive mode depending on the operational status of the motor. This technology combines high torque with high stability.The tone arm with high-precision bearings achieves high initial-motion sensitivity

The tone arm pipe employs magnesium which provides high rigidity.
The use of traditional Technics gimbal suspension construction and high-precision bearings attains high initial-motion sensitivity.

Three-layered turntable that delivers smooth rotational stability
The turntable has a three-layered construction with a rigidly combined brass and aluminium diecast platter, and a rubber covering its rear surface to eliminate unnecessary resonance. With this construction, high rigidity and vibration damping are achieved.
The use of a heavyweight-class turntable that generates a large inertial mass.  It delivers smooth rotational stability.

Four-layered cabinet construction and insulators based on thorough anti-vibration design
The top panel of immaculate aluminum has been added to the three-layered construction of aluminum diecast, BMC, and heavyweight-class rubber. This four-layered construction combines high rigidity with a high quality finish and feel.
The insulators employ special silicon rubber to ensure high vibration damping and long-term reliability. They completely dampen external vibration and suppress howling noise.

High-quality terminals
The use of brass-milled and gold-plated terminals prevents degradation in sound quality.
Inside the case, the metal shielding construction is used to diminish the effects of external noise.

Highly accurate turntable speed maintained with the pitch control
The digital control method is adopted to achieve constant pitch control.
The pitch variable range select button (×2) is provided. The pitch control with the range up to ±16 % is possible
 Coreless Direct Drive Motor
Conventional analogue turntables have problems with degradation in sound quality caused by factors such as minute speed vibration during rotation and rotation irregularity called "cogging." In the SL-1200GAE, the use of a newly developed coreless direct-drive motor with no iron core eliminates cogging. Also, the twin-rotor construction reduces the bearing load while maintaining high torque, and also reduces minute vibration during rotation. These factors enable reproduction of the warm, exquisitely detailed sound etched on analogue records.
High-Precision Motor Control Technology
The application of motor control technology developed for Blu-ray devices, and switching the drive mode depending on the operational status of the motor achieve a high starting torque and high speed stability.
Four-layered Cabinet Construction
A hairline-processed, 10-mm-thick top panel of immaculate aluminium has been added to the previous three-layered construction of aluminium diecast, BMC, and heavyweight-class rubber on the SL-1200MK5. This four-layered construction combines high rigidity with a high quality finish and feel.
 High Sensitive Tonearm
The tonearm employs lightweight magnesium which has a high damping effect, with cold drawing improving the characteristics of the material and achieving the high-precision required. In addition, high initial-motion sensitivity is attained by employing the traditional Technics gimbal suspension construction with horizontal rotation axis and the vertical rotation axis intersecting at a single central point, as well as high-precision bearings using a cut-processed housing.
Three-layered Turntable Platter
The turntable has a three-layered construction with a rigidly combined brass and aluminium diecast platter. With a deadening rubber covering its entire rear surface to eliminate unnecessary resonance, thereby achieving high rigidity and vibration damping. This delivers smooth rotational stability and inertial mass surpassing the SP-10MK2, the direct-drive turntable standard used by broadcast stations worldwide, as well as having more than twice the inertial mass of the SL-1200MK5.
 High-Quality Terminals
The use of brass-milled and gold-plated phono terminals and ground terminals prevents degradation in sound quality while enabling the easy attaching and detaching of cables. Also theuse of metal shielding construction inside the case reduces the effects of external noise.
 High-level Balance Adjustment
When the weight distribution of the turntable is uneven, excess vibration or noise occurs during rotation, which causes degradation in sound quality. Therefore, the balance of the turntable is adjusted at the factory by using specialised high-precision balance adjustment equipment for each and every item after the turntable is assembled. Turntables that have undergone adjustment are labelled with a sticker reading "BALANCED" to indicate that adjustment has been done.
Turntable Section
Type:  Direct drive manual turntable
Drive Method:  Direct drive
Motor:  Brushless DC motor
Turntable:  Brass and aluminum diecast combined
Diameter:  332 mm (13-5/64“)
Mass:  Approx. 3.6 kg (7 15/16 lbs) (including a rubber sheet)
Turntable Speeds:  33-1/3, 45 and 78 rpm
Variable Range Pitch:  ±8 % and ±16 %
Starting Torque:  3.3 kg-cm (2.8 lb-in)
Build-up Characteristics:  0.7 s. from standstill to 33-1/3 rpm
Braking System:  Electronic brake
Wow and Flutter:  0.025 % W.R.M.S. (JIS C5521)
Rumble:  78 dB (IEC 98A weighted)
Tone Arm Section
Type:  Static Balance
Effective Length:  230 mm (9-1/16“)
Overhang:  15 mm (19/32“)
Tracking Error Angle:
Within 2° 32' (at the outer groove of 30 cm (12“) record)
Within 0° 32' (at the inner groove of 30 cm (12“) record)
Offset Angle:  22°
Arm-height Adjustment Range:  0 – 6 mm (0“ - 15/64“)
Stylus Pressure Adjustment Range:  0 – 4 g (direct reading)
Head Shell Weight:  Approx. 7.6 g
Applicable  Cartridge Weight Range:
Without the auxiliary weight :  5.6 to 12.0 g; 14.3 to 20.7 g (including the  head shell)
With the small auxiliary weight :  10.0 to 16.4 g; 18.7 to 25.1 g (including the head shell)
With the big auxiliary weight :  14.3 to 19.8 g; 23.0 to 28.5 g  (including the head shell)
Head Shell Terminal Lug:   1.2 mm Φ  4-pin terminal lug
Power Supply:  AC 120V, 60 Hz
Power Consumption:
Power ON :  14 W
Power OFF :  0,2 W
Dimensions (W×H×D):  453 x 173 x 372 mm (17-27/32“ × 6-13/16“ × 14-21/32“)
Mass Approx. 18.0 kg (39.7 lbs)

Akai BT-500

 The Akai Professional  belt-drive turntable BT-500 is an exquisitely crafted, premium performance turntable that extracts every musical detail and subtle nuance from your beloved record collection.
All the must-have features audiophiles demand for top-flight musical reproduction are here: a quiet belt-drive system with a mechanically-isolated motor that eliminates any residual motor noise and vibration, a heavy die-cast aluminum platter that ensures an exemplary signal-to-noise ratio, a rubber non-slip mat so there’s no record slippage, imperceptible wow and flutter and a low-mass straight tonearm with adjustable counterweight and precision damped cueing. Our unique leveling bubble with adjustable feet ensures a perfectly level needle drop.  A high-quality pre-mounted Audio-Technica magnetic cartridge with elliptical stylus in removable headshell completes the package.
Luxurious walnut finish with brushed aluminum controls
Low-mass straight aluminum tonearm with adjustable counterweight for precise tracking
Leveling bubble with adjustable feet
Die-cast anti-resonance aluminum platter and non-slip rubber mat
Built-in switchable phono pre-amplified
Gold-plated RCA jacks
Streams music wirelessly to any Bluetooth speaker (not included)
 In addition, the Akai's BT-500 has many new school flourishes that make it even more enjoyable and convenient, such as a built-in switchable phono pre-amp so you can use it with a traditional stereo or connect it directly to powered speakers. The BT-500 is also a wireless streaming turntable, so you can stream your vinyl to any Bluetooth® enabled speaker (not included). The BT-500 also boasts the ability to convert your analog records into digital files using the included software and USB port for quick computer connectivity.
System:  Belt Drive Turntable
Speed:  33-1/3 RPM and 45 RPM)
Motor:  Isolated DC
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  67 dB (A-weighted)
Wow and Flutter:  Less than 0.2%
Output Level:
Pre-amp "OFF”:  2.5 mV
Pre-amp "ON”:  155 mV
Dimensions (W x H x D):  444 x 123 x 347 mm (17.5" x 4.84" x 13.7")
Weight: 14 lbs. (6.4kg)
USB Function:  A/D 16-bit 44.1 kHz or 48kHz selectable
Computer Interface:  USB 1.1 Compliant Windows 10/8/7/Vista/XP, Universal Binary for OS X 10.5 to 10.10.x

Luxman T-110

 Ultimate High-Fidelity Stereo Component Model T-110 FM/FM-MPX Tuner
New compact tuner for FM only reception. An epoch-making new approach to styling departs from the conventional concept of tuners which have normally treated product dimensions to equal those of the matching amplifier.

Unlike conventional tuners, the entire dial plate is designed as a unity with tuning and signal strength meter - in other words tha dial scale isplaced in the meters.
The dial scale and letters are of etched aluminium foil. An additional feature is in the special tuning pointer which blinks at interstation settings and lights up when stations are tuned.
 Features of circuitry
Included in the front end is a 5 gang variable capacitor, a low distortion oscillator and MOS FETs in the RF amp and mixer stages, which ensures an amazing characteristic exceeding 100 dB in all kinds of rejection ratio such as image, spurious response and IF.

To obtain good selectivity and low distortion at the same time, the IF stage employs 2 sets of 4-complement linear phase LC block filter and a cerammic filter.
The combination of LC block filter and a ceramic filter compensates mutual delay time and helps lower distortion and increases selectivity. Specifically, the distortion figure is below 0,08% 9both streo and monaural) -  unprecedented in tuners in this price bracket.
Also, selectivity is excellent in the event that both the desired signals and interfering one are stereo.
Other, IF stages are composed of ICs of large scale integration.
 The MPX circuit uses PLL ICs .
A special PLL IC is provided which yields low distortion equivalent to that of discrete circuit adoped in the T300.
An IC for pre amp is used in the last stage of the audio amp to achieve the lowest possible distortion.
Additional features are high output multi-path detector circuit, 4-CH output terminal and attenuator circuit for RF input.
In addition, to remove the unpleasant "thump" noise at the time of on/off operation of power switch, time delay is provided until the circuit is put into operation.
Frequency Range:  88 - 108 MHz
IHF Usable Sensitivity:  1,6 µV (9,3 dBf)/98 MHz
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity:
Mono :  2,2 µV (12 dBf)/75 µsec;  2,8 µV (14 dBf)/50 µsec
Stereo :  34 µV (35,8 dBf)/75 µsec;  36 µV (36,3 dBf)/ 50 µsec
Selectivity:  70 dB/±400 kHz, 100 µV, mono
AM Suppression:  53 dB / 1 mV
Capture Ratio:  1,3 dB/1 mV
Image Ratio:  100 dB/ 98 MHz
IF Rejection Ratio:  100 dB/ 98 MHz
Spurious Response:  100 dB/ 98 MHz
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 15,000 Hz =0,2 -1,5 dB /stereo, mono
Total Harmonic Distortion:
Mono :  0,08% at 1,000 Hz ;  0,1% at 20-10,000 Hz
Stereo :  0,08% at 1,000 Hz;  0,15% at 20-5,000 Hz; 0,3% at 10 kHz
Stereo Separation:  48 dB at 1 kHz; 38 dB at 20 - 10,000 Hz
Carrier leak:  74 dB
SCA Rejection:  70 dB
Stereo Threshold:  5 µV
Muting Threshold:  5 µV
Output Voltage:  1,5 V
Ultimate S/N: 
Mono :  78 dB
Stereo :  72 dB
Power Section:  AC 110 - 120, 220 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  483 x 114 x 243 mm ( 19" x 4-1/2" x 9-9/16")
Weight Net:  7,6 kg (17 lbs) 

Technics SL-P333

 Programmable Compact Disc Player SL-P333 Features:
Optical digital output built-in. Preserves signal purity by sending digital signals directly to a DAC equipped amp.
High Speed Access System
Shuttle search dial. Easy, precise search operation at up to 76 times normal speed.
Cueing search. From pause mode, search gives 0,2 second repeat at the point where the dial is released. Allows pin-point access while checking music at current lacation.
Random Play
Auto cue
20-selection random access programming
31-key full remote control. Including; volume, disc drawer open/close.

Signal Format:
Sampling Frequency :  44,1 kHz
D/A Conversion :  16-bit linear
Pickup Wavelength:  780 nm
Frequency Response:  2 Hz - 20 kHz ±0,5 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  96 dB
Dynamic Range:  96 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion:  0,005%
Wow and Flutter:  below measurable limit
Output Voltage/Impedance:  2,0 V/600 Ω
Headphone Output:  15 mW
Power Supply:  110/127 V, 220/240 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  11 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  430 x 92 x 278 mm
Weight:  3,6 kg

Yamaha CDX-396

 Entry Level Single Disc Compact Player
The Yamaha CDX-396 plays CDs, and finalized CD-Rs, and CD-RWs. It provides high quality performance and convenience features for the music enthusiast.
Tape Edit - Automatically arranges CD selections to most efficiently use selected tape recording length.
CD Synchro Start - Works with compatible Yamaha cassette decks to provide completely synchronized CD and tape start at the touch of one button.
Peak Seacrch - Searches for the highest output level, so the optimum recording level can be easily set.
Direct Track Access - Front panel 10-key pad allows easy selection of particular tracks.
4-Mode Time Display - Visually check total time on disc, total remaining time, elapsed track time, elapsed total time.
Intelligent Digital Servo - Adjusts tracking, focus, and motor speed to compensate for disc defects, warpage, and dust.
Single BIT DAC - Delivers excellent digital-to-analog conversion.
Yamaha Styling - Handsome new V-cut front panel is distinctively Yamaha

Harmonic Distortion 0.003%
Frequency Response:  20  Hz to 20 kHz  ±0.05 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  105 dB
Dynamic Range:  95 dB
Wow nad Flutter:  Unmeasurble
Output Voltage:  2,0 V ±0,5 (1 kHz, 0 dB)
Laser Diode Properties:
Material :  GaAlAs
Wavelength :  780 nm
Emission Duration :  Continuous
Laser Output :  max. 44,6 µW
Power Requirements:  110/120/220/240 , 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  9 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  435 x 96 x 277 mm (17-1/8" x 3-3/4" x 10-7/8")
Weight:  3,7 kg (8 lbs 2 oz).